Several conditions are more common (and can be exclusive) in women. Back pain-related problems are typically seen in the post-menopausal age (above 50 years). Read on to learn more about the common causes of back pain in women and the reasons why they occur.
Pain originating from spasms in your piriformis muscle, a large muscle located deep in the buttock, is called piriformis syndrome. Women are affected more due to hormone and pregnancy-related changes in the pelvis.
Piriformis syndrome often causes irritation or compression of the sciatic nerve, mimicking sciatica pain. Piriformis syndrome may cause.
The symptoms typically get better when you lie on your back.
Women typically have a smaller SI joint surface area compared to men, resulting in a higher concentration of stresses across the joint. The sacrum is also wider, more uneven, less curved, and tilted more backward in women, which may cause problems in the SI joint.
These factors and several other anatomical differences can lead to a higher risk of SI joint misalignment, especially in younger women.
SI joint dysfunction can also cause sciatica-like symptoms. Common features include:
SI joint pain typically increases while you sit, lie on the affected side, and/or climb stairs.
Wear and tear arthritis (osteoarthritis) of the facet joints (joints that connect your vertebrae) is common in women. The risk is more with an increase in age and/or weight.
Spinal osteoarthritis causes a breakdown of the fibrous cartilage in the facet joints. Without the cushioning provided by the cartilage, your bones may rub together, causing pain. Osteoarthritis of the lower back can cause:
The pain may occur on one side of your back, increase when external pressure is applied, and/or be relieved when you bend the spine forward.
When a vertebra in your spine slips over the one below it due to degeneration, it is called degenerative spondylolisthesis. The condition is more common in post-menopausal women due to lower levels of estrogen.
When estrogen is low, there is increased degradation of the vertebral disc and loosening of the ligaments that hold the vertebrae together—causing spinal instability. There is also a higher chance of associated spinal osteoarthritis among this age group, increasing the risk of vertebral slippage.
Degenerative spondylolisthesis can cause:
Pain relief is typically experienced when you bend forward.
Pain in the tail end of your spine (coccyx) occurs largely due to trauma. The condition is more common in women due to the differences in the shape and angle of the pelvis and from injury during childbirth.1
The coccyx serves as a weight-bearing support while you sit. An injury to this region can cause pain while:
Coccydynia pain is abruptly relieved once you stand up. You may prefer to sit by leaning forward or lean onto one buttock at a time to avoid the tailbone pain.
Endometriosis is a gynecological disorder that affects women exclusively. The condition causes the tissues of the uterus to grow outside the womb. Typical symptoms include
The pelvic and/or back pain may become chronic, with flaring during menses.
When the density of your bone decreases, making it brittle and susceptible to fracture, the condition is called osteoporosis. Osteoporosis occurs when there is a higher rate of bone loss compared to new bone formation. Women in the post-menopausal age are 4 times more likely to develop osteoporosis than men. This disparity may be due to the deficiency of the estrogen hormone, loss of bone at a younger age, and loss of bone at a more rapid pace.
Osteoporosis itself can cause bone pain, but more commonly, it may cause compression fractures in your spine, resulting in acute back pain. Spinal compression fractures can cause:
If you have back pain that is not relieved by self-care, causes neurological symptoms (numbness or weakness), or affects your daily work, consult a doctor. A doctor can help identify and treat the cause of your back pain. A trained medical professional can also recommend necessary lifestyle modifications, such as following an anti-inflammatory diet and a structured exercise routine to prevent recurrences.